Installing Kubuntu 16.04
This is the first draft for the installation of Kubuntu 16.04
- List of installed software by you and others who use the PC (skip if new PC)
- Back up locally (not on network drives) stored files (skip if new PC)
- Have access to bios setup/boot menu - very relevant for new PCs. If locked, contact university information service (IS) to come and unlock it, or better still, request it before placing PC order.
- Get information on PC CPU (32-bit/64-bit), e.g. the available RAM, and get correct Kubuntu disk (i586/x86_64)
- Make sure PC has DVD drive or find a portable one (can be installed with USB pen too)
- Get information on hard drive specifications. You might want to also request IS to partition your hard drive/s (at least two), with MS Windows on one, and the other/s blank.
I. Boot setup
Before beginning this procedure it is important to ensure that the BIOS password has either been disabled or is known (for new computer). If not then contact IT or whoever setup/partioned the computer. Interrupt the normal booting procedure for the computer. The means for doing this will be displayed on the screen with the maker of the CPU, e.g. Lenovo. For Lenovo press 'Enter' otherwise it might be F2, Del, etc. Enter the BIOS Setup Utility menu, e.g. by pressing F1 on Lenovo, and arrow to the Startup sub-menu. Enter into the Primary Boot Sequence; for DVD installs, 'shift +' the DVD drive to the top of the queue. Save and exit (e.g. F10).
II. Install menu
After a bit of a load time on the Kubuntu splash screen, select install Kubuntu (this screen may be bypassed by the installer)
Select language 'English' and click on 'Install Kubuntu'
2. Preparing to install kubuntu
[May show drive space availability (tick) and internet connection (cross)] Tick 'install this third-party software...' Click 'continue' (bottom right)
3. Installation type
Select manual and continue.
4. Prepare partitions
You may have Windows pre-installed and want to keep it. It will most likely show up as device:/dev/sda1 type:ntfs. If this isn't partitioned (determined with HDD bar at top showing 100% Windows) and you want to keep windows, seek help! Otherwise you can delete this partition.
If you kept the Windows partition, mount the partition by selecting it, clicking 'change...';
- windows: keep the same partition size, use as 'NTFS' (or whatever the type showed up as earlier), DO NOT tick format, and set mount point as '/windows/C/'. Click 'ok'. If there are two ntfs allocations designate the larger of the two as the mount point '/windows/C/' and the smaller of the two as the drop-down option '/windows' without ticking format for each.
The other partition/s will need to be split into three. Select the 'free space' partition and click 'add';
- swap: select 'primary', size is double your RAM, location is 'beginning', use as 'swap area', click 'ok'
- root: select 'primary', size is '40960MB' (adjust for small HDD), location is 'beginning', use as 'Ext4 jfs', mount point is '/', click 'ok' (it will automatically format)
- eee: size is the rest of available disk space (default), location is 'beginning', use as 'Ext4 jfs', mount point is '/eee', click 'ok' (will auto format). Next it is important to correctly select your boot loader location, this will be the entire partition where root is located, e.g. '/dev/sda' or '/dev/sdb' (usually). Also recheck that windows format box is not ticked, it will be a hassle to get it back. Click on 'install now' in the bottom right.
5. Where are you?
Region is 'Europe', Time zone is 'United Kingdom time', click continue.
6. Keyboard Layout
Layout is 'English (UK)', Variant is 'English (UK)' (unless its different), click continue.
7. Who are you?
Your name is your computer `compname` (it is assigned and should be known; ask someone!), username is `compname_local`, password (also should be known) is `comppassword`, your computer's name is `compname` .
(go and get some tea or shut-eye)
8. Installation complete
Take out the Kubuntu disk, click restart.
Upon restarting, do as before and interrupt the boot such that you can reach the Primary Boot Sequence in BIOS Setup Utility -> Startup. Here alter the boot sequence again so that the disk Kubuntu is partioned onto, boots first. If this partition was second chronologically in your partitions window, then in the boot menu it should be the name of your hard drive with the number 2 (e.g. Scan2 not Scan1, or whatever the name of the drive is). Double check your partitions/make sure you have the correct boat loader location if Kubuntu cannot boot correctly after installing it from the DVD and changing the boot sequence.
- After the splash screen, login using the details you provided during setup.
Getting access to root
Open Terminal/Konsole through the Application Launcher (start button) or by right clicking anywhere, click 'add panel' -> 'default panel'. In terminal, enter;
sudo passwd root
enter the `comppassword` x3.
Kubuntu has some weird quirks that are probably there for a reason but makes setting up a bit more of a hassle than with OpenSUSE. First things first, you'll want to sort out the desktop (skip, if you are ok with the layout).
Replace taskbar: Like before, right click and add default bar. Remove the old bar. Re-adjust as needed.
Multiple screens: Open 'system settings', 'display configuration', and drag monitors to left/right and set primary display (yellow star).
Faster display: Open 'system settings', 'desktop effects', 'advanced' tab, change composting type to 'xrender', qt graphics system to 'raster' (also maybe turn off v-sync). This may be important for integrated graphics PCs (and for not blowing your own brains out because of the slow response).
Setting your IP address
Kubuntu has an odd start-up procedure, where the IP is resolved after trying to access shared directories if you use the network manager (the settings you set in 'system settings'). An easy way around this is to set up interfaces;
- As root, edit /etc/network/interfaces
- Add at the end;
iface eno1 inet static
address 128.243.74.xxx replace 'xxx' with your own IP
dns-nameservers 126.96.36.199 188.8.131.52 184.108.40.206
- Add, as root, at the end of the PATH="..." in the file '/etc/environment' the line;
- Restart and login again as root.
Downloading upgrades/needed programs
Unlike OpenSUSE, a lot of useful programs are missing from the initial install. Luckily, these can now be downloaded.
- Download 'muon package manager', don't use that frilly muon discovery
in terminal, type
sudo apt-get install muon , type Y and enter.
- Open 'muon package manager', click 'settings', 'configure software sources', 'other software', click both 'canonical partners' and accept.
- Click 'check for updates', wait..., click 'full upgrade' and 'apply changes'.
(go for another nap)
- Restart, login as root and re-open 'muon'.
- Search and install; 'nfs-common', 'autofs', 'sysv-rc-conf', 'nis', and possibly 'nfs-kernel-server'. Click 'apply changes'.
- Note: There appears to be an issue in Kubuntu 16.04 where rpcbind does not start on boot. This causes nis ybind to fail and prevent the PC from connecting to the Optics network. A workaround appears to be installing nfs-kernel-server.
- When it asks for a domain, enter 'applied_optics'
- Wait a bit more and restart and login as root.
Annoyingly, automount and auto-directory stuff doesn't sort itself out like in OpenSUSE. So there's a few files that need manual amending.
- Add to /etc/yp.conf
domain applied_optics server 220.127.116.11
- Edit /etc/nsswitch.conf and add/amend/check the protocols list to ensure that the following designations exist in the file (and leave all others untouched):
hosts: files nis dns
networks: files dns
services: files nis
automount: nis files
aliases: files nis
- Ensure that /etc/host.conf possesses the code
order hosts, bind
- Move /home to /local_home and create another /home directory with full access;
mv /home /local_home
chmod 777 /home
- Edit /etc/passwd by adding '+::::::' to the end of the file.
- Edit /etc/groups and add '+:::' to the end.
- Open terminal and run (make sure you are root still);
sysv-rc-conf ypbind on
- Restart, you should now be able to login under your own user name and see all users files in /home. If you are unable to see your user name in the graphical login, manually login as root by pressing Ctrl + Alt + F2. Login as 'root' (enter), type in root password. Then type in the following lines
systemctl enable rpcbind
systemctl start rpcbind
systemctl restart ypbind
systemctl restart autofs
If these were compiled without error, then exit root ('exit'), type in your linux username and password, if successful, type 'startx' and you will be able to login properly. If errors persist/you cannot login under your linux username seek help.
After this step, you shouldn't need to use the root password, but your linux password. Add to /etc/sudoers under the #Members... section
%scan ALL=(root) ALL
OPG Packages and VPM
To be up-to-date with the various repositories, packages and programs used by Applied Optics, the following files will need to be accessed and compiled
- For the standard set of packages
- To include the relevant printer(s) information
sudo rm -rf /etc/cups.orig
- If 'vpm' is not installed (check by typing vpm into a terminal), then install the following package (in the .../kubuntu_16.04 subdirectory)
From here you will be able to designate through vpm the installation of various software programs such as Matlab.
To establish connection with the server and the setup of 'root', the procedure of this page has introduced a redundant user 'compname_local'. This should be removed by performing the following code in Terminal
sudo rm -rf /local_home/
- Edit /etc/group by commenting out the line with compname_local where compname is the name of your computer. Then do
sudo userdel compname_local
where again compname should be replaced by your computer's name.
The installation of Kubuntu 16.04 and all the useful softwares should be done at this point. Ask for help if you find any problems.