NDE for AM

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Motivation

Additive manufacturing offers a paradigm shift in engineering as previous design constraints, such as tooling paths in matching are removed. The ability to create novel free form structures, such as lattices, clearly offers vast potential benefits for high performance industries including aerospace, medical and tooling. However, the uptake of AM components has been hindered as the process are prone to a variety of defects, such as porosity and cracking, which due to the variation in length scales, 10 µm to 500 µm, and the number of processing parameters, >150, make predicting and optimising against these defects near-impossible.

As such, our optics group is currently working on a number of ways to perform non-destructive evaluation on additive manufactured (AM) parts; currently, XCT is widely used in industry for part validation but is a strictly post-process ex-situ technique and has both time and safety implications. Our aim is to take advantage of the layer-by-layer nature of the AM process to inspect during the build to create a volumetric dataset and validate the part in real-time. Further to real-time validation of the component in-situ inspection offers opportunities to adjust build parameters during the build based on processing signal, analogous with the closed-loop feedback used in conventional machining. Alongside the management of components defects in AM significant research in the field is also dedicated to understanding the microstructure and subsequent mechanical properties of the AM components; in future it is envisaged that the processes can be adapted as such to tailor the component microstructure for a given role, as such a technique which can both verify a components integrity and interrogate the microstructure will be well placed to meet the demands, both current and future, of the AM industry,


SRAS on SLM components

SRAS scan of an SLM manufactured Ti-6Al-4V sample, it is clear that surface breaking defects can clearly be seen, and it is suggested that the clear areas of 'green' velocity correspond to subsurface defects
SLM manufactured CM247-LC sample, it is clear that the SRAS technique can detect changes in the microstructure from the island scan strategy


SLM manufactured Ti-6Al-4V sample. (left)n Optical micrograph showing the as-deposited 'rough surface'. (right) SRAS velocity map of the as-deposited surface, captured using a Speckle Knife Edge Detector (SKED)


SLM build platform adapted for SRAS optical train, with beam deliver through galvanometer scanning mirrors and f-theta lens.

There is both a variety of different techniques and terminology, used in the field of additive manufacturing and one of the most interesting of these is Selective Laser Melting (SLM), also known as powder bed fusion or direct metal laser sintering. Using a high power laser, small powder particles, normally of performance alloys such as Ti-6Al-4V or Inconel 718, are melted together to create relatively small components with intricate geometrical features.

Our existing laser ultrasound technique SRAS has previously been used to image the microstructure of metallic samples, giving both grain size and orientation, making it an interesting tool for investigation of SLM samples. Furthermore, In addition to this useful information, the loss of signal or a drastic change in signal amplitude/frequency can be used to measure the presence of both defects on the surface and in the near-surface region. These capabilities combined with the fact SRAS is a non-contact, non-destructive technique makes it an ideal candidate for in-situ inspection of SLM components.

By incorporating the SRAS instrument into the SLM build machine, it shall be possible to image 3D renders both defects and the microstructure on a layer-by-layer basis. The challenges in this project are both in the optical setup, such as measuring signals off rough surfaces, as well as mechanical integration, where atmosphere, temperature, small envelope and interfering particles are all factors to overcome. Furthermore, for the technology to be commercially applicable the quality of data must be balanced against the impact on the manufacturing time. In order to assess this, we have developed a framework for comparing the spatial capability and temporal penalty of various inspection systems.

Research Team

Adam Clare, Matt Clark, Richard Smith, Wenqi Li, Rikesh Patel, Don Milesh Pieris and Paul Dryburgh are actively working on this project. Previous contributors include Steve Sharples, Matthias Hirsch and Samuel Osei Achamfuo-Yeboah.



Related Publications and Talks

Publications

R. J. Smith, M. Hirsch, P. Patel, W. Li, A. T. Clare, S. D. Sharples - Spatially resolved acoustic spectroscopy for selective laser melting
Journal of Materials Processing Technology 236:93--102,2016
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0924013616301352
Bibtex
Author : R. J. Smith, M. Hirsch, P. Patel, W. Li, A. T. Clare, S. D. Sharples
Title : Spatially resolved acoustic spectroscopy for selective laser melting
In : Journal of Materials Processing Technology -
Address :
Date : 2016

M. Hirsch, R. Patel, W. Li, G. Guan, R. K. Leach, S. D. Sharples, A. T. Clare - Assessing the capability of in-situ nondestructive analysis during layer based additive manufacture
Additive Manufacturing 13:135--142,2017
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214860416301877
Bibtex
Author : M. Hirsch, R. Patel, W. Li, G. Guan, R. K. Leach, S. D. Sharples, A. T. Clare
Title : Assessing the capability of in-situ nondestructive analysis during layer based additive manufacture
In : Additive Manufacturing -
Address :
Date : 2017

M. Hirsch, S. Catchpole-Smith, R. Patel, P. Marrow, W. Li, C. Tuck, S. D. Sharples, A. T. Clare - Meso-scale defect evaluation of selective laser melting using spatially resolved acoustic spectroscopy
Proc. R. Soc. A 473(2205):170--194,2017
http://rspa.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/473/2205/20170194
Bibtex
Author : M. Hirsch, S. Catchpole-Smith, R. Patel, P. Marrow, W. Li, C. Tuck, S. D. Sharples, A. T. Clare
Title : Meso-scale defect evaluation of selective laser melting using spatially resolved acoustic spectroscopy
In : Proc. R. Soc. A -
Address :
Date : 2017

M. Hirsch, P. Dryburgh, R. Patel, S. Catchpole-Smith, L. Perry, S. D. Sharples, I. A. Ashcroft, A. T. Clare - Targeted rework strategies for powder bed additive manufacture
Additive Manufacturing 19:127-133,2018
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214860417303925
Bibtex
Author : M. Hirsch, P. Dryburgh, R. Patel, S. Catchpole-Smith, L. Perry, S. D. Sharples, I. A. Ashcroft, A. T. Clare
Title : Targeted rework strategies for powder bed additive manufacture
In : Additive Manufacturing -
Address :
Date : 2018

R. Patel, M. Hirsch, P. Dryburgh, D. Pieris, S. Achamfuo-Yeboah, R. Smith, R. Light, S.D. Sharples, A.T. Clare, Matt Clark - Imaging Material Texture of As-Deposited Selective Laser Melted Parts Using Spatially Resolved Acoustic Spectroscopy
Applied Sciences 8(10):1991,2018
https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3417/8/10/1991
Bibtex
Author : R. Patel, M. Hirsch, P. Dryburgh, D. Pieris, S. Achamfuo-Yeboah, R. Smith, R. Light, S.D. Sharples, A.T. Clare, Matt Clark
Title : Imaging Material Texture of As-Deposited Selective Laser Melted Parts Using Spatially Resolved Acoustic Spectroscopy
In : Applied Sciences -
Address :
Date : 2018

Conference Papers

S. D. Sharples, R. A. Light, S. O. Achamfuo-Yeboah, M. Clark, M. G. Somekh - The SKED: Speckle Knife Edge Detector
3rd International Symposium on Laser-Ultrasonics and Advanced Sensing, Yokohama, Japan 581,2013
http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1742-6596/520/1/012004
Bibtex
Author : S. D. Sharples, R. A. Light, S. O. Achamfuo-Yeboah, M. Clark, M. G. Somekh
Title : The SKED: Speckle Knife Edge Detector
In : 3rd International Symposium on Laser-Ultrasonics and Advanced Sensing, Yokohama, Japan -
Address :
Date : 2013

S. O. Achamfuo-Yeboah, R. A. Light, S. D Sharples - Optical detection of ultrasound from optically rough surfaces using a custom CMOS sensor
13th Anglo-French Physical Acoustics Conference (AFPAC2014) 581,2014
http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1742-6596/581/1/012009/meta
Bibtex
Author : S. O. Achamfuo-Yeboah, R. A. Light, S. D Sharples
Title : Optical detection of ultrasound from optically rough surfaces using a custom CMOS sensor
In : 13th Anglo-French Physical Acoustics Conference (AFPAC2014) -
Address :
Date : 2014

P. Dryburgh, R. Patel, S. Catchpole-Smith, M. Hirsch, L. Perry, R. J. Smith, M. Clark, I. A. Ashcroft, A. T. Clare - Targeted rework of powder bed fusion additive manufacturing
Proceedings of LPM2018 - the 19th International Symposium on Laser Precision Microfabrication ,2018
https://nottingham-repository.worktribe.com/output/1190715/targeted-rework-of-powder-bed-fusion-additive-manufacturing
Bibtex
Author : P. Dryburgh, R. Patel, S. Catchpole-Smith, M. Hirsch, L. Perry, R. J. Smith, M. Clark, I. A. Ashcroft, A. T. Clare
Title : Targeted rework of powder bed fusion additive manufacturing
In : Proceedings of LPM2018 - the 19th International Symposium on Laser Precision Microfabrication -
Address :
Date : 2018

D. M.Pieris, R. Patel, P. Dryburgh, M. Hirsch, W. Li, S. D. Sharples, R. J. Smith, A. T. Clare, M. Clark - Spatially resolved acoustic spectroscopy additive manufacturing: towards online inspection
Proceedings of BINDT2018 - the 57th Annual British Conference on Non-Destructive Testing ,2018
https://nottingham-repository.worktribe.com/output/1191130/spatially-resolved-acoustic-spectroscopy-additive-manufacturing-towards-online-inspection
Bibtex
Author : D. M.Pieris, R. Patel, P. Dryburgh, M. Hirsch, W. Li, S. D. Sharples, R. J. Smith, A. T. Clare, M. Clark
Title : Spatially resolved acoustic spectroscopy additive manufacturing: towards online inspection
In : Proceedings of BINDT2018 - the 57th Annual British Conference on Non-Destructive Testing -
Address :
Date : 2018
Conferences presented


Patel Rikesh, Guan Guanying, Hirsch Matthias, Li Wenqi, Smith Richard J., Achamfuo-Yeboah Samual, Light Roger A., Clare Adam T., Tuck Chris, Clark Matt, Sharples Steve D. - On using laser ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation for additive manufactured samples
15th Anglo-French Physical Acoustics Conference, Fréjus, France ,2015
Bibtex
Author : Patel Rikesh, Guan Guanying, Hirsch Matthias, Li Wenqi, Smith Richard J., Achamfuo-Yeboah Samual, Light Roger A., Clare Adam T., Tuck Chris, Clark Matt, Sharples Steve D.
Title : On using laser ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation for additive manufactured samples
In : 15th Anglo-French Physical Acoustics Conference, Fréjus, France -
Address :
Date : 2015

Clare Adam T., Sharples Steve D., Tuck Chris, Groom Kristian, Hirsch Matthias, Patel Rikesh, Li Wenqi, Smith Richard J., Guan Guanying - In-Process monitoring of Additive Layer Manufacturing
54th Annual Conference of The British Institute of Non-Destructive Testing, Telford, UK ,2015
Bibtex
Author : Clare Adam T., Sharples Steve D., Tuck Chris, Groom Kristian, Hirsch Matthias, Patel Rikesh, Li Wenqi, Smith Richard J., Guan Guanying
Title : In-Process monitoring of Additive Layer Manufacturing
In : 54th Annual Conference of The British Institute of Non-Destructive Testing, Telford, UK -
Address :
Date : 2015

Patel Rikesh, Hirsch Matthias, Li Wenqi, Smith Richard J., Achamfuo-Yeboah Samual, Tuck Chris, Clark Matt, Clare Adam T., Sharples Steve D. - On using laser ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation for additive manufactured samples
4th International Symposium on Laser-Ultrasonics and Advanced Sensing, Illinois, USA ,2015
Bibtex
Author : Patel Rikesh, Hirsch Matthias, Li Wenqi, Smith Richard J., Achamfuo-Yeboah Samual, Tuck Chris, Clark Matt, Clare Adam T., Sharples Steve D.
Title : On using laser ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation for additive manufactured samples
In : 4th International Symposium on Laser-Ultrasonics and Advanced Sensing, Illinois, USA -
Address :
Date : 2015

Patel Rikesh, Hirsch Matthias, Li Wenqi, Smith Richard J., Achamfuo-Yeboah Samual, Tuck Chris, Clark Matt, Clare Adam T., Sharples Steve D. - On using laser ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation for additive manufactured samples
42nd Annual Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation Conference, Minneapolis, USA ,2015
Bibtex
Author : Patel Rikesh, Hirsch Matthias, Li Wenqi, Smith Richard J., Achamfuo-Yeboah Samual, Tuck Chris, Clark Matt, Clare Adam T., Sharples Steve D.
Title : On using laser ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation for additive manufactured samples
In : 42nd Annual Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation Conference, Minneapolis, USA -
Address :
Date : 2015

Patel Rikesh, Hirsch Matthias, Smith Richard J., Achamfuo-Yeboah Samual, Clare Adam T., Sharples Steve D. - Laser ultrasonic inspection of as-deposited AM samples
5th International Symposium on Laser-Ultrasonics and Advanced Sensing, Linz, Austria ,2016
Bibtex
Author : Patel Rikesh, Hirsch Matthias, Smith Richard J., Achamfuo-Yeboah Samual, Clare Adam T., Sharples Steve D.
Title : Laser ultrasonic inspection of as-deposited AM samples
In : 5th International Symposium on Laser-Ultrasonics and Advanced Sensing, Linz, Austria -
Address :
Date : 2016

Clare Adam T., Sharples Steve D., Leach Richard K., Guan Guanying, Hirsch Matthias, Patel Rikesh - In-Process monitoring of Additive Layer Manufacturing
66th CIRP General Assembly, Guimarães, Portugal ,2016
Bibtex
Author : Clare Adam T., Sharples Steve D., Leach Richard K., Guan Guanying, Hirsch Matthias, Patel Rikesh
Title : In-Process monitoring of Additive Layer Manufacturing
In : 66th CIRP General Assembly, Guimarães, Portugal -
Address :
Date : 2016

Clare Adam T., Hirsch Matthias, Guan Guanying, Patel Rikesh, Li Wenqi, Dryburgh Paul, Milesh Pieris Don, Sharples Steve D. - Approaches for AM in-process inspection using SRAS and OCT
EUSPEN Special Interest Group Meeting: Quality Control for Additive Manufacturing, Coventry, UK ,2017
Bibtex
Author : Clare Adam T., Hirsch Matthias, Guan Guanying, Patel Rikesh, Li Wenqi, Dryburgh Paul, Milesh Pieris Don, Sharples Steve D.
Title : Approaches for AM in-process inspection using SRAS and OCT
In : EUSPEN Special Interest Group Meeting: Quality Control for Additive Manufacturing, Coventry, UK -
Address :
Date : 2017

Pieris Don M., Catchpole-Smith Sam, Patel Rikesh, Hirsch Matthias, Dryburgh Paul, Li Wenqi, Sharples Steve D., Smith Richard, Clare Adam T., Clark Matt - Detection and Manipulation of AM Component Microstructure using SRAS
Institute of Physics: Optics and Ultrasound IV, University of Strathclyde, UK ,2017
Bibtex
Author : Pieris Don M., Catchpole-Smith Sam, Patel Rikesh, Hirsch Matthias, Dryburgh Paul, Li Wenqi, Sharples Steve D., Smith Richard, Clare Adam T., Clark Matt
Title : Detection and Manipulation of AM Component Microstructure using SRAS
In : Institute of Physics: Optics and Ultrasound IV, University of Strathclyde, UK -
Address :
Date : 2017

Clare Adam T., Dryburgh Paul, Pieris Don M., Patel Rikesh, and Li Wenqi, Smith Richard, Clark Matt - Finding and Fixing Defects in Metal Powder Bed Systems
Manufacture using Advanced Powder Processes: 1st International Conference ,2018
Bibtex
Author : Clare Adam T., Dryburgh Paul, Pieris Don M., Patel Rikesh, and Li Wenqi, Smith Richard, Clark Matt
Title : Finding and Fixing Defects in Metal Powder Bed Systems
In : Manufacture using Advanced Powder Processes: 1st International Conference -
Address :
Date : 2018